From an extensive review of the literature in the field of total quality management (TQM), 11 constructs of TQM implementation were identified. An instrument measuring these constructs was developed. The reliability and validity of the instrument were tested and validated using data from 212 Chinese manufacturing companies. Various methods were employed for this test and validation. Comparisons between this instrument and the three other quality management instruments were made. It was concluded finally that the instrument presented in this paper was reliable and valid. Researchers will be able to use this instrument for developing quality management theory. Industrial practitioners will be able to use this instrument to evaluate their TQM implementation so as to target improvement areas.
Zhang, Z., Waszink, A. and Wijngaard, J. (2000), "An instrument for measuring TQM implementation for Chinese manufacturing companies", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 17 No. 7, pp. 730-755. https://doi.org/10.1108/02656710010315247Download as .RIS
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