The life‐cycle pattern of east‐west countertrade

Charles W. Neale (Management Centre, University of Bradford, UK)
Yesim T. Akis (Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey)
Christopher L. Pass (Management Centre, University of Bradford, UK)

International Marketing Review

ISSN: 0265-1335

Publication date: 1 August 1997


Countertrade (CT) is often treated as an inefficient and largely undesirable trading medium. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance countries were major exponents of CT both among themselves and also when dealing with Western nations. Following liberalization of “Eastern” politico‐economic systems, more orthodox commercial relationships are being established. This prompts the thesis that CT has been used by Western firms to gain a toe‐hold in difficult Eastern markets to be converted into a more secure relationship, such as a joint venture, when market circumstances become less harsh. Recent events have allowed testing of this hypothesis both by observing the behaviour of a small group of UK countertraders and also via a two‐stage study of Turkish companies. Although there is limited evidence that CT presages more formal modes of market servicing, concludes that CT will probably persist as long as access to hard currencies by Eastern organizations is limited, and so long as entrepreneurs with vision seek out new market opportunities.



Neale, C., Akis, Y. and Pass, C. (1997), "The life‐cycle pattern of east‐west countertrade", International Marketing Review, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 248-265.

Download as .RIS




Copyright © 1997, MCB UP Limited

Please note you might not have access to this content

You may be able to access this content by login via Shibboleth, Open Athens or with your Emerald account.
If you would like to contact us about accessing this content, click the button and fill out the form.
To rent this content from Deepdyve, please click the button.