To read the full version of this content please select one of the options below:

Strategic re‐structuring by born‐globals using outward and inward‐oriented activity

Susan Freeman (International Business Discipline, Business School, Faculty of Professions, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia)
Seyda Deligonul (Department of Management, Bittner School of Business, St John Fisher College, Rochester, New York, USA)
Tamer Cavusgil (Center for International Business Education and Research, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA)

International Marketing Review

ISSN: 0265-1335

Article publication date: 19 April 2013




Current conceptualizations of born‐globals lack a full theoretical explanation of strategic re‐structuring through the use of outward and inward‐oriented activity and the processes of de‐internationalization and re‐internationalization. Strategy and internationalization processes are created by entrepreneurial behaviour. If one wants to understand various international behaviours and strategic changes in firms one needs to focus on entrepreneurs – individual managers. The purpose of this paper is to unify the theoretical framework on born‐globals by addressing two questions. How do managers move through the de‐internationalization (exit) to re‐internationalization (re‐entry) process? How do they choose their patterns of internationalization?


To address these research gaps, this study draws on 26 in‐depth interviews with senior managers across nine Australian born‐globals.


Moving between outward and inward‐oriented activity as they de‐internationalize and re‐internationalize is used as proactive strategic re‐structuring by born‐global managers for survival during periods of global economic decline or changing competitive conditions.


This study provides new theoretical insights where the entrepreneur is central to the internationalization process and provides practical implications for those involved in international business and marketing.



Freeman, S., Deligonul, S. and Cavusgil, T. (2013), "Strategic re‐structuring by born‐globals using outward and inward‐oriented activity", International Marketing Review, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp. 156-182.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2013, Emerald Group Publishing Limited