The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework integrating the types and levels of the determinants of brand country of origin (CO) recognition and to provide evidence on internet users’ brand CO recognition rates, using a sample of multi‐regional and global brands from a variety of product categories and countries.
The authors integrate “level‐1” consumer and brand characteristics and “level‐2” product category and country effects in a single framework. Data obtained through an original on‐line survey hosted by Yahoo provide the basis for the empirical analysis. Seven hypotheses are tested using a two‐level cross‐classified random‐effect model (HCM2).
It is found that: education is positively related with brand CO recognition; experience with brands is positively related with brand CO recognition; integration between the consumer and the country of a foreign brand is positively related with brand CO recognition; internet users’ classification performance is significantly better for domestic than for foreign brands; brand‐name congruence with true brand origin is positively related with brand CO recognition; brand equity explains brand CO recognition; and product categories with higher consumer involvement enhance brand CO recognition. Brand CO recognition performance by internet users is in line with classification performance rates reported in other studies dealing with well‐known and global brands.
Managers would benefit from considering product category and country aspects of their most valuable brands. Policy makers should encourage firms to promote a clear association between brands and countries (when these countries have a positive image) and discriminate between high and low involvement product categories.
The paper contributes to the brand CO awareness literature by integrating consumer and brand characteristics in a theoretical model, and identifying level‐2 product category features and CO effects previously disregarded in brand CO recognition frameworks. In addition, the study positively contrasts with previous research by providing empirical evidence on brand CO recognition from the largest set of global brands (109), countries of origin (19) and product categories (15) ever investigated.
Martín Martín, O. and Cerviño, J. (2011), "Towards an integrative framework of brand country of origin recognition determinants: A cross‐classified hierarchical model", International Marketing Review, Vol. 28 No. 6, pp. 530-558. https://doi.org/10.1108/02651331111181402Download as .RIS
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