A multi‐country assessment of the long‐term orientation scale

Louise M. Hassan (School of Management and Languages, Heriot‐Watt University, Edinburgh, UK)
Edward Shiu (Bangor Business School, Bangor University, Bangor, UK)
Gianfranco Walsh (Institute for Management, University of Koblenz‐Landau, Koblenz, Germany)

International Marketing Review

ISSN: 0265-1335

Publication date: 22 February 2011



Long‐term orientation (LTO) is an important cultural value, which has been shown to meaningfully affect the behavior of individuals. Bearden et al. developed and tested a two‐dimensional scale measuring LTO at the individual level. This study aims to replicate and extend the work of Bearden et al. examining the psychometric properties and generalizability of the scale across ten countries of the European Union (EU).


Survey‐based data were collected from 3,491 respondents across ten EU Member States via an internet questionnaire.


The LTO scale is found to possess adequate dimensional properties in the majority of country samples. Discriminant validity between the two LTO dimensions is not evidenced across four country samples. Significant association is found between LTO and individualistic orientation among respondents in nine of the ten countries with few significant associations found between LTO and uncertainty avoidance. Finally, the generalizability of the scale is assessed through Cronbach et al.'s (1963) generalizability theory and found to be satisfactory though discriminant validity is found to be lacking.

Research limitations/implications

Overall, the scale is recommended for use in measuring LTO with caution. Further research is needed to clarify the difference between the two subscales of tradition and planning.

Practical implications

Measuring and better understanding cross‐cultural differences in customers' LTO can be a means to overcoming difficulties in effectively marketing products and services across cultures.


The paper presents an original and first presentation of a cross‐cultural validation of a parsimonious LTO scale.



Louise M. Hassan, Edward Shiu and Gianfranco Walsh (2011) "A multi‐country assessment of the long‐term orientation scale", International Marketing Review, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 81-101

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: https://doi.org/10.1108/02651331111107116



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