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Product‐country images in the arts: a multi‐country study

Alain d'Astous (HEC Montréal, Montréal, Canada)
Zannie Giraud Voss (Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas USA and Euromed Marseille School of Management, France)
François Colbert (HEC Montréal, Montréal, Canada)
Antonella Carù (Bocconi University, Italy)
Marylouise Caldwell (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia)
François Courvoisier (Haute école de gestion de Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland)

International Marketing Review

ISSN: 0265-1335

Article publication date: 18 July 2008




The country‐of‐origin literature has focused mainly on tangible products and has neglected largely intangible services and products such as the arts. The objective of this study is to examine the impact that country of origin may have on consumer perceptions of artistic and cultural products and to explore the variables that explain how consumers form their perceptions of countries as producers of cultural products.


A survey was conducted among adult consumers in Australia, Canada, Italy, Switzerland, and the USA that assessed participants' perceptions of 16 countries with respect to their reputation for nine cultural products.


The results indicate that product‐country images in the arts are affected by country and product familiarity as well as consumers' openness to foreign cultures and home country bias. Countries more proximate to the participants' home country were also better evaluated, especially when the proximity factor played a significant role in the consumption of cultural products.

Research limitations/implications

While almost all of the hypotheses were supported, additional research is needed to examine the cultural products of non‐Western and emerging markets as well as product‐country perceptions in these markets.


This study extends our understanding of country‐of‐origin effects in the context of aesthetic, intangible, and complex products that elicit both cognitive and affective responses. It demonstrates that familiarity with a country of origin has a stronger association with positive perceptions of product‐country reputation than does product familiarity, and that openness to foreign cultures, home country bias, and proximity have a positive effect on product‐country evaluations.



d'Astous, A., Giraud Voss, Z., Colbert, F., Carù, A., Caldwell, M. and Courvoisier, F. (2008), "Product‐country images in the arts: a multi‐country study", International Marketing Review, Vol. 25 No. 4, pp. 379-403.



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