The purpose of this paper is to expose computational methods as applied to engineering systems and evolutionary processes with randomness in external actions and inherent parameters.
In total, two approaches are distinguished that rely on solvers from deterministic algorithms. Probabilistic analysis is referred to as the approximation of the response by a Taylor series expansion about the mean input. Alternatively, stochastic simulation implies random sampling of the input and statistical evaluation of the output.
Beyond the characterization of random response, methods of reliability assessment are discussed. Concepts of design improvement are presented. Optimization for robustness diminishes the sensitivity of the system to fluctuating parameters.
Deterministic algorithms available for the primary problem are utilized for stochastic analysis by statistical Monte Carlo sampling. The computational effort for the repeated solution of the primary problem depends on the variability of the system and is usually high. Alternatively, the analytic Taylor series expansion requires extension of the primary solver to the computation of derivatives of the response with respect to the random input. The method is restricted to the computation of output mean values and variances/covariances, with the effort determined by the amount of the random input. The results of the two methods are comparable within the domain of applicability.
The present account addresses the main issues related to the presence of randomness in engineering systems and processes. They comprise the analysis of stochastic systems, reliability, design improvement, optimization and robustness against randomness of the data. The analytical Taylor approach is contrasted to the statistical Monte Carlo sampling throughout. In both cases, algorithms known from the primary, deterministic problem are the starting point of stochastic treatment. The reader benefits from the comprehensive presentation of the matter in a concise manner.
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