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Formulation of secant and reloading soil deformation moduli using multi expression programming

Amir Hossein Alavi (Young Researchers Club, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran)
Ali Mollahasani (Department of Civil, Environmental and Material Engineering (DICAM), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy)
Amir Hossein Gandomi (Young Researchers Club, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran)
Jafar Boluori Bazaz (Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran)

Engineering Computations

ISSN: 0264-4401

Article publication date: 24 February 2012




The purpose of this paper is to develop new constitutive models to predict the soil deformation moduli using multi expression programming (MEP). The soil deformation parameters formulated are secant (Es) and reloading (Er) moduli.


MEP is a new branch of classical genetic programming. The models obtained using this method are developed upon a series of plate load tests conducted on different soil types. The best models are selected after developing and controlling several models with different combinations of the influencing parameters. The validation of the models is verified using several statistical criteria. For more verification, sensitivity and parametric analyses are carried out.


The results indicate that the proposed models give precise estimations of the soil deformation moduli. The Es prediction model provides considerably better results than the model developed for Er. The Es formulation outperforms several empirical models found in the literature. The validation phases confirm the efficiency of the models for their general application to the soil moduli estimation. In general, the derived models are suitable for fine‐grained soils.


These equations may be used by designers to check the general validity of the laboratory and field test results or to control the solutions developed by more in‐depth deterministic analyses.



Hossein Alavi, A., Mollahasani, A., Hossein Gandomi, A. and Boluori Bazaz, J. (2012), "Formulation of secant and reloading soil deformation moduli using multi expression programming", Engineering Computations, Vol. 29 No. 2, pp. 173-197.



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Copyright © 2012, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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