To reduce the computational complexity per step from O(n2) to O(n) for optimization based on quadratic surrogates, where n is the number of design variables.
Applying nonlinear optimization strategies directly to complex multidisciplinary systems can be prohibitively expensive when the complexity of the simulation codes is large. Increasingly, response surface approximations (RSAs), and specifically quadratic approximations, are being integrated with nonlinear optimizers in order to reduce the CPU time required for the optimization of complex multidisciplinary systems. For evaluation by the optimizer, RSAs provide a computationally inexpensive lower fidelity representation of the system performance. The curse of dimensionality is a major drawback in the implementation of these approximations as the amount of required data grows quadratically with the number n of design variables in the problem. In this paper a novel technique to reduce the magnitude of the sampling from O(n2) to O(n) is presented.
The technique uses prior information to approximate the eigenvectors of the Hessian matrix of the RSA and only requires the eigenvalues to be computed by response surface techniques. The technique is implemented in a sequential approximate optimization algorithm and applied to engineering problems of variable size and characteristics. Results demonstrate that a reduction in the data required per step from O(n2) to O(n) points can be accomplished without significantly compromising the performance of the optimization algorithm.
A reduction in the time (number of system analyses) required per step from O(n2) to O(n) is significant, even more so as n increases. The novelty lies in how only O(n) system analyses can be used to approximate a Hessian matrix whose estimation normally requires O(n2) system analyses.
Pérez, V., Renaud, J. and Watson, L. (2008), "Reduced sampling for construction of quadratic response surface approximations using adaptive experimental design", Engineering Computations, Vol. 25 No. 8, pp. 764-782. https://doi.org/10.1108/02644400810909607Download as .RIS
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