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Pullout capacity of spatial anchors

Lidija Frgić (Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia)
Pavao Marović (Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Split, Split, Croatia)
Krešimir Tor (Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia)

Engineering Computations

ISSN: 0264-4401

Article publication date: 1 September 2004


This paper discusses the pullout capacity of spatial anchors in soil under applied vertical force. In field tests, the pullout forces were gradually increased and the ground surface displacements measured in two profiles perpendicular to each other. The laboratory and field tests were performed for several embedment depths and anchor diameter ratios in the same sand and under the same conditions. The anchor pulling was also laboratory‐tested so that the vertical anchor displacements were given and the corresponding force intensity measured. The finite element method was used for the pullout force computation in test cases. The relations between displacements and pullout forces obtained by the laboratory tests, field tests and numerical computations were statistically analysed. Owing to gradual convergence of pullout forces towards the limit value, the exponential function was adopted as an approximation curve. The two obtained constants of the function represent the significant mechanical characteristics. The first is limit pullout force and the second gives the total stiffness of the soil mechanical system.



Frgić, L., Marović, P. and Tor, K. (2004), "Pullout capacity of spatial anchors", Engineering Computations, Vol. 21 No. 6, pp. 598-609.



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