Two mesh refinement indicators based on the gradients of effective stress (GSIG) and effective plastic strain (GEPS), respectively, are proposed for adaptive finite element analysis of the large deformation, quasi‐static or dynamic response of shell structures. The mesh refinement indicators are based on equi‐distributing the variation of stresses or plastic strains over the elements of the mesh. A program module is developed and implemented in the non‐linear explicit finite element code LS‐DYNA. This module provides element‐wise refinement evaluations so that selective mesh refinements are carried out in regions of the mesh where the values of local indicators exceed a user‐specified tolerance. The FE model of a conventional deep drawing process is used as a numerical model, including both material and geometrical non‐linearities, in order to demonstrate the versatility of the two refinement indicators. Four different refinement indicators, based on angle change, thickness change, GSIG and GEPS, are applied in this investigation. The numerical results are compared with experimental results regarding the thickness distribution versus cup height, cup height variation versus circumference angle, effective plastic strain in the deformed sheet and punch force. It is shown that the proposed indicators can identify finite elements which have high gradients of effective stress or effective plastic strain so that the mesh is refined in the regions undergoing the most severe deformations and the numerical results are improved.
Moshfegh, R., Li, X. and Nilsson, L. (2000), "Gradient‐based refinement indicators in adaptive finite element analysis with special reference to sheet metal forming", Engineering Computations, Vol. 17 No. 8, pp. 910-932. https://doi.org/10.1108/02644400010360875Download as .RIS
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