Development of a scale measuring destination image

Kevin K. Byon (Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA)
James J. Zhang (Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, College of Health and Human Performance, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA)

Marketing Intelligence & Planning

ISSN: 0263-4503

Publication date: 22 June 2010



The purpose of this paper is to develop the scale of destination image (SDI) to assess destination image affecting the consumption associated with tourism.


The scale was developed through four steps: review of literature, formulation of a preliminary scale, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and examination of predictive validity by a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. The preliminary scale consisted of 32 items. Employing a systematic sampling method, a total of 199 research participants responded to a mail survey.


In the CFA with maximum likelihood estimation, four factors with 18 pertinent items are retained. This four‐factor model displays good fit to the data, preliminary construct validity, and high reliability. The SEM analysis reveals that the SDI is found to be positively predictive of tourism behavioral intentions.


This paper develops an original multi‐dimensional 18‐item scale measuring destination image from the perspective of tourists, which can provide academicians and practitioners with a reliable and valid analytical tool to assess destination image.



Byon, K. and Zhang, J. (2010), "Development of a scale measuring destination image", Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 28 No. 4, pp. 508-532.

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