Based on personal observations of several thousand managers, in both business and simulated business settings, four elements are identified that are frequently associated with leadership effectiveness. These elements are: (1) consistently and routinely applying a small number of key concepts, (2) developing skill at thinking and acting strategically, (3) taking advantage of knowing one′s personal style and its impact on others, (4) understanding the non‐linear and iterative nature of strategic management processes. These four elements ‐concepts, skills, personal style, and process – had the most impact on the organisations run by the managers in our study when the elements had been developed in proportion to each other. Too strong a focus on an element, or a noticeable lack of ability with respect to an element, was counterproductive.
Stumpf, S.A. and Mullen, T.P. (1991), "Strategic Leadership: Concepts, Skills, Style and Process", Journal of Management Development, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 42-53. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621719110140915
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