Separating functional areas, especially in the product design and manufacturing process, is a historical problem in many organisations and has cost them dearly. In today′s globally competitive world, functional area integration, or at least maximum two‐way communication between each pair of functional areas, is necessary for product‐manufacturing firms to remain competitive. The issue of integrating functional area is explored in detail. Five approaches are suggested to facilitate functional area integration. They are: joint programme meetings; matrix organisation format; phased sign‐off approach; use of a computer‐aided design (CAD) system for communication; and development of a programme approach.
Pegels, C.C. (1991), "Integrating Functional Areas for Improved Productivity and Quality", International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 27-40. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443579110141522
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