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Job and work attitudes, engagement and employee performance: Where does psychological well‐being fit in?

Ivan T. Robertson (Robertson Cooper Ltd, Manchester, UK and Leeds University Business School, Leeds, UK)
Alex Jansen Birch (Robertson Cooper Ltd, London, UK)
Cary L. Cooper (Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK)

Leadership & Organization Development Journal

ISSN: 0143-7739

Article publication date: 4 May 2012



This article aims to test the hypothesis that employee productivity levels will be better predicted by a combination of positive job and work attitudes (employee engagement) and psychological well‐being than by positive job and work attitudes alone.


Survey data using psychometrically sound measures of the key constructs were collected for a sample of over 9,000 people across 12 organisations.


Multiple regression analyses reveal that psychological well‐being has incremental value over and above that of positive job and work attitudes in predicting self‐reported levels of performance.

Research limitations/implications

The study design involves cross sectional self‐report data and as such firm conclusions about causality cannot be drawn.

Practical implications

The results suggest that if employers focus only on job and work attitudes and ignore employee psychological well‐being, they will limit the benefits that can be obtained through initiatives such as programmes designed to improve employee engagement.


The study provides evidence that two previously separate constructs are both important in predicting measures of employee productivity.



Robertson, I.T., Jansen Birch, A. and Cooper, C.L. (2012), "Job and work attitudes, engagement and employee performance: Where does psychological well‐being fit in?", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 224-232.



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