Using 3608 feedback and the integral model to develop leadership and management skills

Ron Cacioppe (Associate Professor, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia)
Simon Albrecht (Senior Lecturer, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia)

Leadership & Organization Development Journal

ISSN: 0143-7739

Publication date: 1 December 2000


Leadership and management skills are increasingly required to navigate organisations through the complexities and changes of contemporary environments. Over the last decade, 3608 feedback is a process that has gained wide usage to help development of these skills. Summarises current research on 3608 feedback and the development of an integrated model of leadership and management based on the theories of Wilber. The article describes a comprehensive “integral” model and a questionnaire that uses elements of 3608 feedback to measure roles of leadership and management, as well as dimensions of self‐development and strategic change skills. This approach is applied to a sample of 304 managers and over 1,000 subordinates. The construction, validity and results of the questionnaire are discussed, as well as the major leadership strengths and weaknesses of the sample managers. Issues and experiences in the use of this model and the 3608 process are described.



Cacioppe, R. and Albrecht, S. (2000), "Using 3608 feedback and the integral model to develop leadership and management skills", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 21 No. 8, pp. 390-404.

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Copyright © 2000, MCB UP Limited

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