Employee empowerment in the Greek context

Zoe S. Dimitriades (Department of Business Administration, University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece)

International Journal of Manpower

ISSN: 0143-7720

Publication date: 1 January 2005



The purpose of the article is to examine the validity and reliability of Spreitzer's and Menon's instruments in a culturally diverse environment. To test whether individualized measures of Hofstede's cultural dimensions are related to employee empowerment in the Greek context.


To investigate the multidimensional nature of the empowerment construct and the discriminant validity and reliability of its basic dimensions principal component analysis with varimax rotation is conducted. Furthermore, correlation analysis is employed to examine the relationship between empowerment, power distance and uncertainty avoidance and to compare current with existing findings. The analysis is based on valid responses from 154 Greek employed students to self‐administered surveys.


Overall, the results of the present study are congruent with the literature in the area, confirming the usefulness of a view of empowerment characterized by the dimensions of perceived control (or impact), perceived competence, and goal internalization (or meaning). Furthermore, the level of psychological empowerment in this investigation compares quite favorably with reported findings from Canada, the USA and Australia. Finally, whereas uncertainty avoidance is significantly positively associated with overall empowerment and all of its sub‐scales, contrary to expectations, power distance is unrelated to feelings of empowerment.

Research limitations/implications

Although the results, in line with existing findings, seem to confirm the cross‐national validity and reliability of the Spreitzer and Menon instruments, they also tentatively indicate the potential relativity of the empowerment concept in non‐American settings – especially in terms of its important determinants. Future research should aim to refine the discriminant validity of Spreitzer's sub‐scale of self‐determination. Replication of current findings using probability sampling to address issues of potential within‐country cultural variability also warrants further consideration.


The study establishes the validity and reliability of two of the most popular instruments in the empowerment literature in the Greek context. In addition, the paper highlights links between work‐related cultural values and perceived empowerment among Greek employees – a pertinent but inadequately researched issue in Greece.



Dimitriades, Z. (2005), "Employee empowerment in the Greek context", International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 80-92. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437720510587299

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