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Creativity in assessment of library instruction

Janet L. Williams (Janet L. Williams ( is Director of Corporate Communications and Library Services, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.)

Reference Services Review

ISSN: 0090-7324

Article publication date: 1 December 2000


The basic concepts of testing and item development, and the application of alternative assessments (non‐multiple choice) to information literacy content for library instruction are discussed. Alternative item types include selected response, constructed response, essay, and complex answers. The author relates the item types to the “Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education”. Topic, content objectives, and behavioral objectives are included for each item.



Williams, J.L. (2000), "Creativity in assessment of library instruction", Reference Services Review, Vol. 28 No. 4, pp. 323-335.




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