Health‐care systems (HCS) are different from other industrial/commercial systems in that they can be influenced by moral and ethical considerations. In recent times, total quality management (TQM) has been implemented in many business sectors, as a means of focusing on the needs and aspirations of customers and using this focus to drive activity and improvement effort. HCS deal with a particular type of consumer ‐ the patient ‐ who may be old, confused, or otherwise vulnerable. Argues that TQM, when implemented in HCS, requires an understanding of the particular nature of the sector, which influences the parameters of quality relating to patient care and their subsequent measurement.
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