The role that lubricating oils play is, first of all, to reduce energy loss and keep the wear and seizure to a minimum, or, in a broader sense, to improve the friction characteristics. Resistance to deterioration and prevention of rust development on metals are demanded as secondary functions. The time during which lubricating oil retains its ability to prevent any possible damage to a body in motion should be considered as its lifetime. Many functions that are provided by base oil alone are insufficient; therefore, special additives are dissolved in them. The additives for lubricating oils are of many types, and their functions are diverse and many. Those additives that are used with the purpose of improving friction characteristics are generally called oiliness improvers or friction modifiers. In this study, the protective additive's layers formed on rubbed surfaces of pins, plates and discs were investigated using pin‐on‐disc and reciprocating pin‐on‐plate test rigs. Wear tracks were examined using optical and electron microscopy with X‐ray diffraction analysis.
Kaleli, H. (2004), "Evaluation of additive's layer formation in engine crankcase oil using two different types of tribological test rigs", Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 56 No. 3, pp. 158-170. https://doi.org/10.1108/00368790410532192
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