Since 1980, the principal form of crop loss assistance in the United States has been provided through the Federal Crop Insurance Program. The Federal Crop Insurance Act of 1980 was intended to replace disaster programs with a subsidized insurance program that farmers could depend on in the event of crop losses. Crop insurance was seen as preferable to disaster assistance because it was less costly and hence could be provided to more producers, was less likely to encourage moral hazard, and less likely to encourage producers to plant crops on marginal lands. Despite substantial growth in the program, the crop insurance program has failed to replace other disaster programs as the sole form of assistance. Over the past 20 years, producers received an estimated $15 billion in supplemental disaster payments in addition to $22 billion in crop insurance indemnities.
Glauber, J.W., Collins, K.J. and Barry, P.J. (2002), "Crop insurance, disaster assistance, and the role of the federal government in providing catastrophic risk protection", Agricultural Finance Review, Vol. 62 No. 2, pp. 81-101. https://doi.org/10.1108/00214900280001131
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