A daily diary study was used to examine the relationships between goal distance, goal velocity, affect, expectancies, and effort from the perspective of Carver and Scheier's (1998) control theory of self-regulation. Fifteen social workers completed a diary at the end of each working day for four weeks. Multi-level analysis found little support for the precice predictions of Carver and Scheier's theory, but did support the idea that discrepancy reduction plays a role in regulating behavior. Expectancies had a strong association with effort, and affect moderated this relationship. The interaction indicated that high expectancies suppress the signalling effects of affect, preventing the individual from being consumed by immediate reactions to situational events and enabling effort to be sustained.
Holman, D., Totterdell, P. and Rogelberg, S. (2005), "A Daily Diary Study of Goal Striving: The Relationship Between Goal Distance, Goal Velocity, Affect, Expectancies, and Effort", Ashkanasy, N., Zerbe, W. and Härtel, C. (Ed.) The Effect of Affect in Organizational Settings (Research on Emotion in Organizations, Vol. 1), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 95-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1746-9791(05)01105-3Download as .RIS
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