In the mid-1970s, China's economy had only two forms of public ownership: state ownership and collective ownership. In the agricultural sector, virtually all production was organized into collectively owned Production Brigades (villages) and People's Communes (townships or groups). In industry, SOEs accounted for 80% of total industrial output, with the remaining 20% shared by urban and rural collectives. By the late 1990s, SOEs and collectives accounted for less than 50% of GDP (International Finance Corporation, 2000; p. 18). Transformation of the ownership of production has undoubtedly been one of the key components of China's successful reform program. This has been achieved through combined efforts: privatization of agricultural production on collectively owned land; new entry of collectively owned industrial enterprises, especially township and village enterprises (TVEs), and their subsequent privatization; new entry of foreign-invested and domestic private enterprises; and ownership transformation of existing SOEs (Mako & Zhang, 2003).
Mako, W. and Zhang, C. (2007), "Chapter 4 Why is China so Different from Other Transition Economies?", Lieberman, I. and Kopf, D. (Ed.) Privatization in Transition Economies: The Ongoing Story (Contemporary Studies in Economic and Financial Analysis, Vol. 90), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 173-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1569-3759(07)00004-6Download as .RIS
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