This paper considers threats to the internal validity of field studies that utilize survey data. Compared to laboratory experiments and field experiments, field surveys should be strong in realism, practical significance, and normative quality. However, there are substantial threats to internal validity that fall into the general categories of sampling and measurement. We consider these issues and how to deal with them. We pay special attention to the existence and impact of common method variance including strategies for avoiding it, methods for assessing it, and approaches to correcting for it. Our objective is to provide a road map for better use of survey methods.
Slater, S.F. and Atuahene-Gima, K. (2004), "CONDUCTING SURVEY RESEARCH IN STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT", Research Methodology in Strategy and Management (Research Methodology in Strategy and Management, Vol. 1), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 227-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1479-8387(04)01108-7
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