When designing a joint system for a complex, dynamic, open environment, where the consequences of poor performance by the joint system are potentially grave, the need to shape the machine agents into team players is critical. Traditionally, the assumption has been that if a joint system fails to perform adequately, the cause can be traced to so-called “human error.” However, if one digs a little deeper, they find that the only reason many of these joint systems perform adequately at all is because of the resourcefulness and adaptability that the human agents display in the face of uncommunicative and uncooperative machine agents. The ability of a joint system to perform effectively in the face of difficult problems depends intimately on the ability of the human and machine agents to coordinate and capitalize upon the unique abilities and information to which each agent has access.For automated agents to become team players, there are two fundamental characteristics which need to be designed in from the beginning: observability and directability. In other words, users need to be able to see what the automated agents are doing and what they will do next relative to the state of the process, and users need to be able to re-direct machine activities fluently in instances where they recognize a need to intervene. These two basic capabilities are the keys to fostering a cooperative relationship between the human and machine agents in any joint system.
Christoffersen, K. and Woods, D.D. (2002), "1. How to make automated systems team players", Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research (Advances in Human Performance and Cognitive Engineering Research, Vol. 2), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1479-3601(02)02003-9Download as .RIS
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