Throughout the course of its history, Thailand has thrived on international commerce and interacting with global forces. During the past two centuries, Thailand has faced a progression of events threatening its self-definition requiring very conscious educational and cultural reform policies to offset the advances of globalized movements. The first series of reforms began to take place in the late 19th century and served as a defensive measure to fend off the onslaught of European colonial activity and to unify a disjointed society. This reform was used to primarily centralize the cultural and religious authority and power of the kingdom, while assimilating the local/regional/rural areas through education. The most recent reform in late 20th century was devised to fend off global market forces and to unify a disjointed society through a strategy of decentralization and educational reform. Both these reforms were countered with strong resistance movements that reflect a resistance heritage that aspires to civil society.
Jones, M. (2008), "Thailand and globalization: The state reform utilities of Buddhism, culture, and education and the social movement of socially and spiritually engaged alternative education", Hopson, R., Camp Yeakey, C. and Musa Boakari, F. (Ed.) Power, Voice and the Public Good: Schooling and Education in Global Societies (Advances in Education in Diverse Communities, Vol. 6), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 419-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1479-358X(08)06016-6Download as .RIS
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2008, Emerald Group Publishing Limited