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Timescapes: A Multi-Level Approach for Understanding Time Use in Complex Organizations

Multi-Level Issues in Organizations and Time

ISBN: 978-0-7623-1434-8, eISBN: 978-1-84950-499-7

ISSN: 1475-9144

Publication date: 17 July 2007


Organizational studies of time tend to be done by academic researchers rather than practitioners. This chapter builds on academic research to provide a practitioner perspective by reviewing time situated in theory and constructing two phenotypes: timescapes of business and social time. These timescapes are defined by six dimensions, each with a social and business time parameter. Organizational business and social timescapes have different functions and applications. Timescapes, with their concomitant dimensions and sets of parameters, are used differently by senior managers, middle managers, and entry-level managers. Three multi-level approaches (self, dyadic, and social relationships), composition theory, and compilation theory confirm these three managerial timescape usages. After a review of the theoretical bases of the timescape constructs and a brief discussion of the grounded, anthropological, research methodology used in the study, this chapter applies timescape theory and models to an extended time case study of the Procter & Gamble Company that frames the company's timescape understanding and use from a practitioner's view.


Reeves-Ellington, R. (2007), "Timescapes: A Multi-Level Approach for Understanding Time Use in Complex Organizations", Dansereau, F. and Yammarino, F.J. (Ed.) Multi-Level Issues in Organizations and Time (Research in Multi-Level Issues, Vol. 6), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 259-316.



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