The process approach to multi-level organizational behavior is based on the assumption that multi-level organizational behavior is processual in nature. This article defines group and organizational processes and their representation as process frameworks. Both functional and inclusional classes of levels exist, each of which has at least five categories of levels. All ten categories are special cases of process frameworks. This article provides examples of each category level, which it uses to illustrate new models of organizational work, extended models of interdependence, a new typology of theories based on their levels of processes, and a new tool for survey research called knobby analyses. After explaining the basic idea of knobby analysis, the article briefly describes the processual theory of the organizational hologram, the use of linear programming, and causal-chain analysis to provide multi-level explanations of employee opinion data. These ideas are embodied in conducting a strategic organizational diagnosis, which is the first stage of organizational design. Organizational design encompasses multiple stages, each of which itself involves multiple, multi-level phenomena and analyses. The basic point is that the processual nature of multi-level organizational phenomena gives more hope for improvements in theory building and their application if one uses the process approach rather than a variable approach.
Mackenzie, K.D. (2005), "THE PROCESS APPROACH TO MULTI-LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR", Yammarino, F.J. and Dansereau, F. (Ed.) Multi-level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Processes (Research in Multi-Level Issues, Vol. 3), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 347-417. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1475-9144(04)03017-6Download as .RIS
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