Allen C. Bluedorn and Sydney Finkelstein have provided an unusually insightful set of commentaries on “Planning in organizations: Performance as a multi-level phenomenon”. In this article, I respond to these commentaries beginning with an examination of the assumptions made about planning over the years. Subsequently, I examine Bluedorn's and Finkelstein's critiques of this article with respect to three key issues: Complexity, performance, and history. With regard to history, I argue that the use of case-based reasoning in planning insures that planning performance is as much a function of the past as forecasting of the future. With regard to performance, it is argued that planning performance must be framed in a multi-level model. The issue of complexity is addressed by examining the role of cross-level and within-level interactions in shaping planning performance. The implications of these observations for theoretical integration and research needs are discussed.
Mumford, M. (2002), "Planning in organizations: Complexity, history, and performance", Yammarino, F. and Dansereau, F. (Ed.) The many faces of multi-level issues (Research in Multi-Level Issues, Vol. 1), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 81-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1475-9144(02)01029-9Download as .RIS
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