This chapter provides an overview of five modes of intellectual property (IP) protection – patents, designs, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets – available in the United States, the European Union, and Japan. After describing the purposes of and principal differences among the five types of IP protection and outlining the advantages of each form, the chapter provides country- and region-specific information. The authors highlight the aspects of IP law in which international harmonization has, or has not yet, occurred, and offer insights into the relative advantages of various national and regional IP protection systems.
Hallenborg, L., Ceccagnoli, M. and Clendenin, M. (2008), "Chapter 3 Intellectual property protection in the global economy", Libecap, G.D. and Thursby, M.C. (Ed.) Technological Innovation: Generating Economic Results (Advances in the Study of Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth, Vol. 18), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 63-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-4736(07)00003-3
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