Dominant in the urban sociology literature on immigrant incorporation is the role of ethnic enclaves – ethnic neighborhoods that provide a “port of entry” or “context of reception” and help facilitate incorporation in the host society by generating informal resources, networks, and institutions that provide linguistic and cultural services and products (Portes & Rumbaut, 1990). While New York City's stature as a global city is replete with nostalgia about historic ethnic immigrant neighborhoods, contemporary immigrant settlement is once again transforming urban landscapes not only by renewing enclave formations but by creating numerous multiethnic, multiracial neighborhoods (Hum, 2004). As often cited, in no other historic period has New York City received as diverse a range of people from all over the world – certainly, this diversity is reshaping local neighborhood landscapes.
Krase, J. and Hum, T. (2006), "Immigrant Global Neighborhoods: Perspectives from Italy and the United States", Hutchison, R. and Krase, J. (Ed.) Ethnic Landscapes in an Urban World (Research in Urban Sociology, Vol. 8), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 97-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1047-0042(06)08005-6
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