Discrimination is an intergroup as well as an interpersonal phenomenon and is related to fundamental processes associated with social categorization and the development of in-group favoritism. We propose in the Common In-Group Identity Model that by understanding the factors that underlie the development of these inter-group biases, these forces can be redirected to improve intergroup relations. In particular, if members of different groups are induced to recategorize themselves as a superordinate group rather than as two separate groups, intergroup prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination will be reduced through the extension of pro-in-group bias to former out-group members. Moreover, recategorization in the form of a dual identity, in which superordinate and subgroup identities are both salient, can achieve the benefits of a strong superordinate identity without requiring groups to forsake valued ethnic and racial identities. Data reported from laboratory studies, field experiments, and surveys involving a range of different types of groups offer converging evidence in support of the model.
Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S.L. and Kafati, G. (2000), "Group identity and intergroup relations The common in-group identity model", Advances in Group Processes (Advances in Group Processes, Vol. 17), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 1-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0882-6145(00)17002-X
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