We review 25 years of research on expatriate experiences concentrating on expatriate adjustment as a central construct, and relying on a general stressor-stress-strain framework. First, we consider who expatriates are, why their experiences differ from domestic employees, and what adjustment is. Conceptualizing (mal)adjustment in terms of stress, we next review the stressors and strains associated with it. Consolidating the wide range of antecedents (anticipatory and in-country) that have been studied to date, we note major patterns of effects and their implications for how HR managers can facilitate adjustment. Although relatively less research has focused on the consequences of adjustment, enough evidence exists to establish a bottom-line impact of poor adjustment on performance. To stimulate future efforts to understand the experiences of expatriates, we discuss the challenges and opportunities of continuing down this road of research.
Harrison, D.A., Shaffer, M.A. and Bhaskar-Shrinivas, P. (2004), "GOING PLACES: ROADS MORE AND LESS TRAVELED IN RESEARCH ON EXPATRIATE EXPERIENCES", Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol. 23), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 199-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-7301(04)23005-5
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