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Research in Secondary Schools

ISBN: 978-0-76231-107-1, eISBN: 978-1-84950-270-2

Publication date: 1 August 2004


A current vision of education in America today is that all students be science literate. To accomplish this, educators and teachers need to be aware of the challenges involved in promoting science literacy: science literacy encompasses a wide range of knowledge, including construction of knowledge, use of that knowledge, and recall of critical facts necessary to apply scientific information in the world today. In addition, teachers and educators need a knowledge of the issues of “inclusion” since students of diverse abilities, including those with disabilities and others at risk for school failure, are being educated, as much as possible, in general education classrooms taught by content experts.

A bridge to span the gap between the challenges of science literacy for all students and the complexities of student diversity is Content Enhancement – instruction that responds to the needs of students of diverse abilities while maintaining content integrity by focusing on the critical information that all students need to know. In Content Enhancement, the teacher helps students learn by organizing information, providing explicit instruction when necessary, and assuring that students are active partners with the teacher and other students in the construction of knowledge. Graphic organizers and instructional sequences have been developed to help teachers organize information at the course, unit and lesson levels; learn to answer large, difficult questions with ideas that can be generalized to other settings; explore and manipulate knowledge by developing analogies and comparisons; and respond to assessments.


Bulgren, J. (2004), "EFFECTIVE CONTENT-AREA INSTRUCTION FOR ALL STUDENTS", Scruggs, T.E. and Mastropieri, M.A. (Ed.) Research in Secondary Schools (Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, Vol. 17), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 147-174.



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