The primary purpose of this chapter is to synthesize the existing research that describes children who are unresponsive to generally effective early literacy interventions. Studies were selected in which: (a) children ranged from preschoolers to third graders and were at-risk for reading disabilities; (b) treatments targeted early literacy; (c) outcomes reflected reading development; and (d) students’ unresponsiveness to intervention was described. The search yielded 23 studies, eight of which were designed primarily to identify characteristics of unresponsive students; the remaining 15 studies focused on treatment effectiveness, but also identified and described unresponsive students. A majority of unresponsive students had phonological awareness deficits; additional characteristics included phonological retrieval or encoding deficits, low verbal ability, behavior problems, and developmental delays. Methodological issues are discussed that complicate comparisons of non-responders across studies. A secondary purpose of this chapter is to describe findings from recent longitudinal studies that support the hypothesis that non-responders may be the truly reading disabled. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Al Otaiba, S. (2003), "IDENTIFICATION OF NON-RESPONDERS: ARE THE CHILDREN “LEFT BEHIND” BY EARLY LITERACY INTERVENTION THE “TRULY” READING DISABLED?", Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities (Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, Vol. 16), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 51-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-004X(03)16003-XDownload as .RIS
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