Early twentieth century transatlantic migration was both a massive transoceanic population transfer and a complex travel business. The successful growth of this multinational commerce was based not on fare reductions, but on risk management strategies. Shipping lines provided costly carrying capacity sufficient to accommodate severely fluctuating demand for transatlantic migration, and did so in a manner which improved the reliability and quality of travel for migrants.
Keeling, D. (2007), "Transport Capacity Management and Transatlantic Migration, 1900–1914", Field, A.J., Clark, G. and Sundstrom, W.A. (Ed.) Research in Economic History (Research in Economic History, Vol. 25), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 225-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0363-3268(07)25005-0
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