This paper contends that diverse value systems that lead people to sympathize with their own groups in some cases and with other people’s groups in other cases can serve to reduce opportunistic behavior in organizations. In particular, it is useful for an organization to have people who espouse an “innovationist” perspective that supports reduction in hierarchy and economic disparities along with flexibility and change in work conditions. It is also useful to have people who espouse an opposing “traditionalist” perspective that supports hierarchy and inequality along with clear rules and stability in work conditions.
Eastman, W. (2004), "HIERARCHY-ENHANCING VERSUS HIERARCHY-LEVELING PERSPECTIVES IN ORGANIZATIONS: VALUING VALUE DIVERSITY IN THE NEW ECONOMY", DiTomaso, N. and Post, C. (Ed.) Diversity in the Work Force (Research in the Sociology of Work, Vol. 14), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 165-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-2833(04)14007-7
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