Urban schools serve a diverse student population that includes African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and “poor” European Americans. The school size and location and the composition of student population play a major part in determining learning outcomes of a particular school (Mukuria, 2002). The Carnegie Report (1988) described many urban schools as having a large, diverse population and located in “poor” neighborhoods. The report indicated that many schools lack purpose, coherence, and unifying culture and that they have neglected buildings that give them a negative appearance. In addition, these schools lack meaningful instructional programs and regular routines as well as a strong sense of community. As a result, they demonstrate the instability to establish a consensus on a unifying culture, which to a large extent, leads to disciplinary problems.
Obiakor, F.E. and Mukuria, G.M. (2006), "Special Education Leadership in Urban Schools", Obiakor, F.E., Rotatori, A.F. and Burkhardt, S. (Ed.) Current Perspectives in Special Education Administration (Advances in Special Education, Vol. 17), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 55-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0270-4013(06)17004-XDownload as .RIS
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