Mental disorders collectively account for 4 of the 10 leading causes of disability and represent more than 15% of the overall burden of disease in the United States (SAMHSA, 1999). The first Surgeon General’s Report on Mental Health reported that in 1999 nearly 20 million American adults (9.5% of the population) were clinically depressed and that, at any one time, 1 in every 20 employees is experiencing depression (SAMHSA, 1999). The indirect costs of mental disorders to the American economy amounted to an estimated $79 billion in 1990, with loss of productivity because of illness accounting for about 80% of these costs ($63 billion) (Rice & Miller, 1996). Additionally, significant costs may accrue from decreased productivity due to symptoms that sap energy, affect work habits, and cause problems with concentration, memory, and decision-making (SAMHSA, 1999).
Kébreau Alexandre, P., Yvard Fede, J. and Mullings, M. (2004), "GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE LABOR MARKET EFFECTS OF SERIOUS MENTAL ILLNESS", Marcotte, D.E. and Wilcox, V. (Ed.) The Economics of Gender and Mental Illness (Research in Human Capital and Development, Vol. 15), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 53-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0194-3960(04)15004-X
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