The belief that children have mental health needs different than those of adults is a relatively recent phenomenon. Systematic field studies of mental illness began in the early 19th century (Anthony, Eaton, & Henderson, 1995), although awareness of these illnesses and the recognition of the need for treatment were well established by the 1600s (Grob, 1994). Field studies and census data from mental hospitals in the 1800s reveal few cases of mental illness identified among children under the age of 16. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the recognition that children have specific mental health needs arose as the result of the confluence of several factors. The Progressive Movement promoted child labor and mandatory public education laws that created legal separations between the role of children and adults (Abbott, 1908; Sutton, 1983). Hall (1905) helped popularize the idea that childhood and adolescence constituted distinct periods of development. Perhaps most pressing, however, was a perceived rise in juvenile delinquency and sexual promiscuity. To address these problems, separate courts were established for juvenile offenders to keep children out of institutions and to provide treatment and rehabilitation (Alper, 1941). Based on the work of Healy and Bronner (1916), researchers and policy makers began to think of juvenile crime as arising from “mental conflicts” in children. Institutions such as the Chicago Juvenile Psychopathic Institute and the Boston Psychopathic Hospital were established to care for these children (Horn, 1989).
Mandell, D.S., Guevara, J.P. and Pati, S. (2006), "The Search for Coordinated, Continuous Community-Based Care: How the Parallel Efforts of the Medical Home and Systems of Care can Inform Each Other", Fisher, W.H. (Ed.) Research on Community-Based Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents (Research in Community and Mental Health, Vol. 14), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 77-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0192-0812(06)14005-2
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2006, Emerald Group Publishing Limited