Libraries and librarians have long been early adopters of information technologies. For decades, librarians have applied computerization to library operations. Standardization and computerization of bibliographic records decades ago made possible automation of library systems, the creation and utilization of giant bibliographic utilities such as OCLC with its 52 million records. Collaborative adoption of information technologies decades ago brought shared cataloging, on-line public access catalogs, bibliographic databases, enhanced interlibrary loan and document delivery, and acquisition of information in digital formats, resulting in worldwide access to library resources. Nonetheless the revolution in information technologies that produced the World Wide Web in the mid-1990s hit the information profession of librarianship and the educational establishment like an earthquake.
Durrance, J.C. (2004), "Competition or Convergence? Library and Information Science Education at a Critical Crossroad", Advances in Librarianship (Advances in Librarianship, Vol. 28), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 171-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2830(04)28008-4
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